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To the extent permitted by law Northern Rivers Gas does not accept liability or responsibility arising in any way (including from Northern Rivers Gas’s negligence) for any loss, costs, expenses or damage of any kind (including indirect or consequential losses) arising out of the provision of, use or inability to use this website.

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Financial Disclaimer

Northern Rivers Gas does not accept any liability for any investment decisions made on the basis of this information. This web site does not constitute financial advice and should not be taken as such. Northern Rivers Gas urges you to obtain professional advice before proceeding with any investment.

External Link Disclaimer
Any links have been provided for your convenience. Web sites which you are transferred to are not controlled by Northern Rivers Gas and Northern Rivers Gas is not responsible, and does not accept any liability, for the information contained on those web sites. The provision of a link does not constitute an endorsement or approval of that web site or any products or services on that web site.



Liquefied Petroleum Gas



Product (Material) Name: Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Other Names: LP Gas, Propane, Butane, Automix

Recommended Use: Used as a fuel in domestic, commercial, industrial and automotive applications.

Australian Emergency Contact No:  1800 093 336 (24 hours, 7 days)



Hazard Classification: Classified as a highly flammable, liquefied gas for transport (ADG, UN, IATA/ICAO):

UN Number:  1075, Petroleum Gases Liquefied.

Class:  2.1

Subsidiary Risk:  Nil

Packaging Group: N/A

HAZCHEM Code: 2YE (in accordance with 7th Edition of ADG Code) Forbidden for transport on passenger aircraft.


Packaging Method: 5.9.2RT2

EPG Number:  2.1.001

IERG Number:  04

Risk Phrase:

(s) R7 – May cause fire.

R12 - Extremely flammable.

R18 – In use, may form flammable – explosive vapour air mixture.

R21 – Harmful in contact with skin.

Safety Phrase(s):

S9 – Keep container in a well ventilated place.

S16 – Keep away from sources of ignition – no smoking.

S18 – Handle and open container with care.

S26 – In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.

S33 – Take precautionary measures against static discharges.

S35 – This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.

S43 – In case of fire, use dry chemical type extinguisher or water.



Substances:  C3H8 (propane) C4H10 (butane)

Common Names:  LP Gas, Autogas

CAS Number:  68477-94-1

Mixtures or Composite Materials: >90% Propane >90% butane or a variable mixture for automotive use

Chemical Identity of the substance(s):  C3H8 (propane) / C4H10 (butane)

Specification: In accordance with AS4670:2006 for heating purposes.

Hydrocarbon mixture of propane, propene (propylene), butane, butalene. A small quantity (typically up to 25 ppm) of ethyl mercaptan (stenching agent) is commonly added to assist in leak detection.

Contains:  <0.1% 1,3-butadiene

Hazardous Components: No component is present at sufficient concentration to require a hazardous classification.

Confidentiality Provisions: N/A

Disclosure of Ingredients: N/A




If exposure to vapour, mists or fumes causes drowsiness, headache, blurred vision or irritation of the eyes, nose or throat, remove immediately to fresh air. Keep patient warm and at rest. If any symptoms persist obtain medical advice.

Unconscious casualties must be placed in the recovery position. Monitor breathing and pulse rate and if breathing has failed, or is deemed inadequate, respiration must be assisted, preferable by the mouth to mouth method. Administer external cardiac massage if necessary. Seek medical attention immediately.


If cold burns are present drench with water and obtain immediate medical advice.

Keep contaminated clothes away from ignition sources.


Wash eye thoroughly with copious quantities of luke warm water. Obtain IMMEDIATE medical attention.

Advice to Doctor

Treatment should in general be symptomatic and directed to relieving any effects.

Additional Information




Suitable Extinguishing Media

Smaller LP Gas fires may be extinguished using dry chemical powder type extinguishers. Larger LP Gas fires are controlled with use of water via hose reel, hydrants or automated deluge type systems.

Hazards from Combustion Products

Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapour, traces of Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides. Fumes, smoke Carbon Monoxide and Aldehydes can be formed during incomplete combustion. Fire fighters may need self contained breathing apparatus.

Precautions for Fire Fighters and Special Protective Equipment

Evacuate area, remove ignition sources. Cut off gas supply if safe to do so – do not endanger life. DO NOT EXTINGUISH FIRE – allow gas to burn out. Use a water mist to keep the container cool.

NOTE: If ignition has occurred and water is not available, the storage container metal may weaken from the heat and may result in an explosion. The area should be evacuated immediately. From a safe location, notify emergency services.

Hazchem Code

2YE (in accordance with 7th Edition of ADG Code)

Additional Information

LP Gas is delivered, stored and used at temperatures above it’s flash point. Avoid all naked flames, sparks, cigarettes, etc.

In case of fire, immediately alert the fire brigade.

Ensure an escape path is always available from any fire. Fires in confined spaces should be dealt with by trained personnel wearing approved breathing apparatus.

If gas has ignited, do not attempt to extinguish but stop gas flow and allow to burn out. Use water spray to cool heat-exposed containers, and to protect surrounding areas and personnel effecting shut-off. DO NOT USE water jets.

Every precaution must be taken to keep containers cool to avoid the possibility of a boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE).

Pressurised containers are liable to explode violently when subjected to high temperatures.



Emergency Procedures

As this product has a very low flash point any spillage or leak is a severe fire and/or explosion hazard. If a leak has not ignited, stop gas flow, isolate sources of ignition and evacuate personnel.

Ensure good ventilation

Liquid leaks generate large volumes of flammable vapour which is heavier than air, this may travel to remote sources of ignition (eg along drainage systems). Where appropriate, use water spray to disperse the gas or vapour and to protect personnel attempting to stop leakage.

Vapour may collect in any confined space.

Methods and Materials for containment and clean up procedures

If spillage has occurred in a confined space, ensure adequate ventilation and check that a safe, breathable atmosphere is present before entry.

Do not enter a vapour cloud except for rescue; self-contained breathing apparatus must be worn.

Wear protective clothing. See Exposure Controls/Personal Protection, section 8, of the Safety Data Sheet.

In the event of a leak, contact the appropriate authorities. Small quantities of spilled liquid may be allowed to evaporate. Vapour should be dispersed by effective ventilation.



Precautions for Safe Handling

Ensure good ventilation.

Avoid inhalation of vapour.

Avoid contact with liquid.

When handling cylinders or transferring LP Gas wear protective footwear and suitable gloves.

Avoid contact with the eyes.

Conditions for Safe Storage

Store and use only in containers designed for use with this product.

Store and dispense only in well ventilated areas away from the heat and sources of ignition.

Do not enter storage tanks. If entry to tanks is necessary, contact the supplier.

Containers must be properly labelled. Do not remove warning labels from containers.

Other Information

Fire Prevention

Where appropriate ensure equipment is electrically bonded and earthed to prevent static accumulation.

Explosive air/vapour mixtures may form at ambient temperature.

Note: product spilt on clothing may give rise to delayed evaporation and subsequent fire hazard.

Storage and handling of LP Gas is controlled via the requirements of AS/NZS 1596 (Storage and Handling of LP Gas).

Please refer to Australian state and territory dangerous goods regulations.



National Exposure Standards

Ensure adequate ventilation. Avoid, as far as reasonably practicable, inhalation of vapour generated during use. The vapour is an asphyxiant at high concentrations.

If vapour is generated, its concentration in the workplace air should be controlled to the lowest reasonably practicable level.

WorkSafe Australia recommends an Exposure Standard of 1000 ppm for LP Gas over an 8 hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Biological Limit Values


Engineering Controls

Store containers in an upright position (even when empty); keep away from heat sources; do not drop; keep valves closed when not in use. Where relief valves are fitted to bulk vessels or pipework, protection by rain caps or grease plugs must be provided at all times. Store away from oxidising substances (eg pool chlorine).

Containers must be secured in an upright position for transport, as per Australian Dangerous Goods Code.

Respiratory Protection

If operations are such that exposure to vapour, mist or fume may be anticipated, then suitable approved respiratory equipment should be worn. The use of respiratory equipment must be strictly in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions and any statutory requirements governing its selection and use.

Body Protection

Wear suitable gloves and overalls to prevent cold burns and frostbite. In filling operations wear protective clothing including imperious gloves, safety goggles or face shield. When handling cylinders wear protective footwear.



Odour:  Sulphurous/distinctive when stenched

Boiling Point:  within the range -42ºC to 0oC

Vapour Pressure:  300 – 1400 kPa @ 40ºC

Vapour Pressure:  0 – 375 kPa @ 0oC

Solubility in Water:  @ 20ºC <200ppm

Physical State: Liquid while stored under pressure (vapour at ambient pressure)

Colour: Colourless

Density: Liquid 0.51kg/l – 0.58kg/l (water = 1)

Vapour: 1.52 – 2.01 (air = 1)

Flash Point: -104ºC - 60ºC

Autoignition Temperature: 494ºC - 549ºC

Flammable Limits: 1.5% to 9.6% (in air v/v)

Ratio of Expansion (liquid to vapour): Propane 1; 273 / butane 1; 238

Odourant: Ethyl Mercaptan @ dose rate of 25 parts per million in liquid.



Chemical Stability

Stable at ambient temperatures.

Hazardous Reactions

Hazardous polymerisation reactions will not occur.

Conditions to Avoid / Incompatable Materials

Avoid contact with strong oxidizing agents (ie. Chlorine, Pool chlorine, Nitric Acid, etc.)

Hazardous Decomposition Products

Incomplete combustion will generate hazardous gases, including carbon monoxide.



Acute and Chronic Health Effects


Possible Routes of Exposure/Range of Effects following exposure


Low vapour concentrations may cause nausea, dizziness, headaches and drowsiness. May have a narcotic effect if high concentrations of vapour are inhaled. High vapour concentrations may produce symptoms of oxygen deficiency which, coupled with central nervous system depression, may lead to rapid loss of consciousness.


Under normal conditions of use the product is not hazardous, however, abuse involving deliberate inhalation of very high concentrations of vapour, even for short periods, can produce unconsciousness and/or result in a sudden fatality.


Will cause cold burns and frostbite if skin contact with liquid occurs.


Will present a risk of serious damage to the eyes if contact with liquid occurs.

Dose, Concentration or Conditions of Exposure likely to cause injury

Saturated concentration of atmosphere may cause asphyxia.

Delayed Effects




Eco Toxicity

Not toxic to flora, fauna or soil organisms. Will not cause long term adverse effects in the environment and is not dangerous to ozone layer. Unlikely to cause long term effects in the aquatic environment.


Spillages are unlikely to penetrate the soil. The product is volatile/gaseous and will partition to the air phase.


Unlikely to cause long term adverse effects in the environment.

Bioaccumulative Potential

This material is not expected to bioaccumulate.



‘EMPTY’ container warning: ‘empty’ containers retain residue (liquid and/or vapour) and can be dangerous. DO NOT PRESSURISE, CUT, WELD, BRAZE, SOLDER, DRILL, GRIND OR EXPOSE SUCH CONTAINERS TO HEAT, FLAME, SPARKS AND OTHER SOURCES OF IGNITION, THEY MAY EXPLODE AND CAUSE INJURY OR DEATH. Do not attempt to clean, as residue is difficult to remove. Containers should be returned to the owning organisation when no longer required. Small customer owned cylinders should be made safe at a Gas Cylinder Test Station before disposal. Check with local Council re acceptance for disposal to landfill.

Do not incinerate LP Gas cylinders.



Refer to Section 2.

Transport of LP Gas is controlled in accordance with the requirements of the Australian Dangerous Goods Code.



Not classified using the criteria in the Standard Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons.



Ensure users and operators understand the flammability and potential explosive hazards associated with the storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gas.

Contact with liquid may cause cold burns and or frostbite.

Always ensure that cylinders are within test date (10 year maximum), are fit for use and are leak checked prior to use.

Do not fill excessively dented, gouged or rusty containers (refer AS2337.1)

Only fill containers to 80% fill level (ullage tube via decanting or mass via mechanical filling).

MSDS Sheet prepared and last revised August 2008.



ALPGA Specification for Liquefied Petroleum Gas for Automotive use 2004.

AS4670:2006 - Commercial Propane and Commercial Butane for Heating Purposes

NOHSC – Approved Criteria for Classifying Hazardous Substances [NOHSC:1008 (2004)] 3rd Edition.

NOHSC – National Code of Practice for the Preparation of Material Safety Data Sheets [NOHSC:2011 (2003)] 2nd Edition

Australian Dangerous Goods Transport Code – 7th Edition